CHAPTER 5 –
The geological time chart is wrong
Almost as important as
radioactive dating is dating by means of geological strata and leading fossils.
This method is based on the fact that the history of the Earth has been divided
into a group of long geological periods (Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician,
Silurian, Devon, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Perm, Triassic, Jurassic,
Cretaceous, Tertiary, Quaternary), and that we should find the corresponding
strata in the same order from nature. The length of the periods can vary from
millions of years up to hundreds of millions of years. The following three
issues are the basic presuppositions of this method:
slowly and over the course of millions of years, strata has formed and
accumulated on top of each other. The lowest of this strata can be up to tens or
hundreds of millions of years older than the more recent top strata.
2. Secondly, there are special fossils or leading fossils that, at their time,
were very rife. A geological time scale or a so-called geological column has
also been compiled of these leading fossils, and this column should show us when
they have existed.
If a normal layperson was to find a
trilobite in any given place, according to this principle, the fossil must be
at least 200 million years old, because the trilobite is thought to have become
extinct back then.
bones are found from a stratum, both the bones and the stratum should always be
at least 65–120 million years old, as the general idea is that dinosaurs lived
during that period of time.
according to the same principle, if a stratum includes human fossils, it cannot
be more than a few million years old, because it is assumed that people have
lived on Earth for this period of time.
3. Thirdly, when
fossils are found in strata, they should always be in the order of the more
primitive and older organisms further down. This is believed to indicate how
life has evolved from the primitive forms to the current forms.
WHY THE geological time chart is
It, that the geological time chart with its hundreds of millions of years
is badly wrong, appears in many factors. In schoolbooks problems being connected
with it is brought out seldom but the matter is presented as a scientific truth.
But in fact this chart, drawn up in the 1900th, is far from the truth and
practical observations in the nature. For instance, the next factors are
The age of the oldest strata. If the geological time chart
with its hundreds of millions of years is true, it means that the oldest
geological periods should be hundreds of millions of years old. For example,
Precambrian period had to be 4600-600, Cambrian period 600-490 and Carboniferous
period 350-290 millions years ago.
A surprising observation is, however, that from fossils of this oldest strata
have been found radiocarbon that should not appear at all in them, because they
are so old. For as the half-life of radiocarbon is only 5600 years, it is clear
that it cannot appear at all in samples of which age is millions of years. It is
However, the fact is that radiocarbon appears in many fossils and in coal-,
peat-, and oil deposits, which have been regarded as tens or hundreds of
millions years old. (Also
graphite and anthracite that should be “hundreds of millions years old” have
got in measurements the age of 40 000 – 60 000 years, [Junker, R., Scherer, S.,
”Entstehung und Geschichte der Lebewesen”, Weyel Biologie, 1988, s. 160). It means that this strata with their fossils cannot be millions or
hundreds of millions years old but at most tens of thousands of years. Appearing
of radiocarbon makes the long periods impossible.
The next citation indicates well how the age of the oldest strata is in reality
measured only in thousands of years because of radiocarbon appearing in them. As
it appears repeatedly even in fossils of the Cambrian period, the long periods
of the geological time chart cannot be true:
The new technology improved exactness of measurements between
carbon-14 and carbon-12. Before it was possible to measure a content that was
about a per cent of the present carbon-14-content. AMS made possible to measure
a content that was about 0,001 per cent of the present carbon. Theoretically
this lengthened the action-area of carbon-14-method from 40 000 years to about
90 000 years. Like this it was wished to measure much older samples. However,
they who wished this met something surprising.
Doctor John Baumgardner, one of the researchers of the RATE-group, states that
“a great surprise was that it was not found any fossil material, in which there
would have been so little (radiocarbon) than 0.001 per cent of the modern
value!” 23 This means that carbon-14-atoms can be found even from the fossils of
the Cambrian period, which the researchers regard as 600 millions years old.
Baumgardner gives an incredible example of the matter.
If we begin from the pure carbon-14-amount of the noticeable universe, so after
1,5 million years (a little part of the whole time of evolutionism) there should
not be left any carbon-14-atom!. However, it is found routinely
14C/12C-proportions that is class of 0,1 – 0,5 % in the present – a hundred
times bigger than the expression boundary of the AMS-method – samples that
should be tens or hundreds of millions years old. This is a big problem to an
uniformaristic viewpoint (the time scale of evolution). 24
Baumgardner sent also a
diamond to a carbon-14-laboratory for a measurement. This has been done never
before, because the measurement would be regarded as fully absurd – as sheer
madness. Diamond that has been formed deep in the Precambrian rocks of the Earth
is as old as the Earth oneself. Furthermore, the linkages of diamond’s crystal
are very strong, so the biological contamination cannot get into a diamond.
Therefore, it was thought that it is useless to determine the age of a diamond
with carbon-14-method. The measurement report of the laboratory arrived: The
diamond was about 58 000 years old! (25)
Deficiencies in strata. A view
that easily appears in textbooks is that we can find perfect geological
stratographic sequences around the Earth, in which all strata of the geological
time chart are perfectly in line on top of each other. It should be like this if
the supposed evolution during millions and billions of years were true.
The fact is, however: perfect geological stratographic sequences have not been
found anywhere, only fractions of them have been found. In between this strata,
periods of "tens of millions" or "hundreds of millions” years are often missing
and in the famous Grand Canyon, for example – which is often used as a perfect
example – only five of the twelve most important strata have been found. The
geological chart there, as elsewhere, is incomplete and does not correspond to
the view presented in books. The perfect stratographic sequence is so reality
only on a piece of paper and in textbooks but not in nature. It is exceptional
if even three or four strata of twelve (or thirteen) are on top of each other.
Furthermore, it is good to note that the geological chart was originally drawn
up on a very small area that does not correspond to other parts on the Earth. It
together with the deficiencies of strata makes using of the chart problematic:
A student, when first
encountering this chart, naturally believes that geologists have found the
different rock strata in the correct order in one cycle where each stratum
follows the former in a regular order, and all of these in a place where the
rock has been formed in the way indicated on the chart. But nothing is further
away from the truth: no series of the sort has been found anywhere on the Earth.
The history of the normal distribution of the Earth's crust was created in
Central and Western Europe. German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner
(1749–1817) can be deemed as the initiator of this distribution. However, it is
clear that the order of the strata on the Earth created by Werner is untrue in
most parts of the world, and actually, it does not fitted in anywhere. He
constructed a theory concerning the entire Earth, based on research on a small
area only. However, there are mountains only a few kilometres from his home
that, based on their formation, are in total conflict with his dogma.
One must truly wonder how researchers of our time have without bias adopted
these hypotheses that are almost 200 years old. (…) The artificial division of
the entire history of the Earth into a series of long-term geological periods is
more than dubious. If this theory were true, long periods of time must have
passed in some places on the Earth without any signs of erosion or strata. There
are cases where the so-called more recent strata is located immediately on top
of the older ones. (27)
Disorder in strata.
In addition to the strata are
a detective around the Earth, they also appear in disorder or against the
geological time chart. In other words, it means that the strata, which has been
regarded as the oldest, are on the uppermost, while younger strata has been
found under them. Such inconsistencies appear around the Earth, which indicates
the faultiness of the geological time chart. Next some examples:
- Precambrian and Cambrian strata that should include the lowest and simplest
forms of life are located on the uppermost layers in many areas on the Earth.
According to the evolutionary view, they should be millions of years old.
- Fossil species, such as ammonites, have been found on mountain slopes at an
altitude of several kilometres. These fossils should have lived in the earliest
times and thus be – according to the geological order – at the bottom.
Nevertheless, they have been found in the topmost layers on mountain slopes, in
other words, in a totally wrong place from the point of view of the geological
- In the salt ridges of Pakistan, the main parts of a mountain are Cambrian
("500 million years old"), but under these layers there are Tertiary strata
(“less than 60 million years old”).
- Rocks from the Tertiary period have been found in the Alps on the peak of
Mt. Muthen (less than 60 million years old) under rocks from the Triassic period
(200 million years old). Also, in the mountains of Switzerland to the east of
Lake Lucerne, a stratum of the Cretaceous period is on the top. Below this
stratum there is limestone from the Jurassic period and at the bottom Tertiary
rocks, even though these should be on top of the others.
- In Glacier National Park in North America, there is Precambrian limestone
("1,000 million years old") on top of a slate formation from the Cretaceous
period (“100 million years old”).
The next citations refer also to the same issue or disorder in strata. They
indicate that around the world it can be found places, in which old and young
strata is in reverse order or against the geological time chart. They indicate
that the order of the geological time chart is true only on a paper but not in
Any stratum of a certain era
can rest on top of any other stratum belonging to the entire series below it – a
Carbon stratum on top of an archaic Silurian or Devonian stratum; and a
Jurassic, Cretaceous or Tertiary stratum on top of older ones with no strata in
between. Quaternary strata in America is often on top of archaic rocks, in other
cases on top of Silurian or Devonian rocks; in some cases on top of a Cretaceous
or a Tertiary stratum. (Researcher James D. Dana in his book Manual
of Geology p. 899) (28)
When a geologist
finds strata so that the one dubbed the oldest is on the top, we must forgive
him if he is not sure whether he is standing on his head or not. There are
extensive areas in South Alberta, a national park in the United States, Canada,
Germany, Russia, and in the Alps where the order of the strata is quite the
opposite and also in many other places the strata is quite disorderly. (Sir
Archibald Geikie, the former leader of the British Geological Research Society)